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## Main Findings

ROI is a financial metric used to evaluate the profitability of an investment. It is calculated by dividing the net profit by the cost of the investment and multiplying by 100 to get a percentage. ROI can be used to compare different investment options, measure the performance of a business or a project, or assess the efficiency of a marketing campaign. ROI does not account for factors like inflation, the time value of money, or the risk involved with an investment, for instance. It should be used in conjunction with other financial measures to provide a more comprehensive analysis of an investment.

## Return on Investment (ROI) is a metric used to understand the profitability of an investment. ROI compares how much you paid for an investment to how much you earned to evaluate its efficiency.

ROI is expressed as a percentage or a ratio, which can be easily compared with other investments or projects. ROI can be used by both individual investors and businesses to measure the performance of their investments or expenditures.

### Why is ROI important?

ROI is important because it helps investors and managers make informed decisions about where to allocate their resources. By calculating the ROI of different options, they can choose the ones that offer the highest returns relative to the costs.

ROI can also help evaluate the success of an investment or project over time, by comparing the initial cost with the current value or net profit. ROI can also help identify areas of improvement or potential risks, by analyzing the factors that affect the profitability of an investment or project.

### Formula for ROI

The basic formula for ROI is:

**ROI** = (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 100

Net Profit is the amount of money earned from an investment after deducting all expenses and taxes. Cost of Investment is the total amount of money spent to acquire or start an investment or project. The result is multiplied by 100 to convert it into a percentage.

For example, suppose you invested $10,000 in a stock and sold it for $12,000 after one year. Your net profit would be $2,000 ($12,000 - $10,000), and your cost of investment would be $10,000. Your ROI would be:

**ROI** = ($2,000 / $10,000) x 100

**ROI **= 20%

This means that you earned 20% on your investment in one year.

### How to calculate ROI

To calculate ROI, you need to know the net profit and the cost of investment of an investment or project. You can use the basic formula above, or you can use a more detailed formula that takes into account the period and the annualized rate of return.

The detailed formula for ROI is:

**ROI** = [(Final Value - Initial Value) / Initial Value] / Number of Years

Final Value is the current value or selling price of an investment or project. Initial Value is the original cost or purchase price of an investment or project. The number of Years is the duration of the investment or project in years. The result is divided by the number of years to get the annualized rate of return.

For example, suppose you invested $10,000 in a stock and sold it for $15,000 after three years. Your final value would be $15,000, your initial value would be $10,000, and your number of years would be 3. Your ROI would be:

**ROI** = [($15,000 - $10,000) / $10,000] / 3

**ROI **= 0.1667 / 3

**ROI **= 0.0556

This means that you earned 5.56% per year on your investment over three years.

### Examples

To illustrate how to calculate ROI using the formula, let's look at some examples.

#### Example 1

A company invests $10,000 in a new marketing campaign that generates $15,000 in revenue. The ROI of the campaign is:

**ROI** = ($15,000 - $10,000) / $10,000 x 100%

**ROI **= 50%

This means that for every dollar invested in the marketing campaign, the company earned 50 cents in return.

#### Example 2

An investor buys 100 shares of a stock for $50 each and sells them for $60 each after one year. The ROI of the investment is:

**ROI **= ($6,000 - $5,000) / $5,000 x 100%

**ROI** = 20%

This means that for every dollar invested in the stock, the investor earned 20 cents in return.

#### Example 3

A project manager estimates that a new project will cost $100,000 and generate $120,000 in net income over its lifetime. The ROI of the project is:

ROI = ($120,000 - $100,000) / $100,000 x 100%

ROI = 20%

This means that for every dollar invested in the project, the project manager expects to earn 20 cents in net income.

### Limitations

While ROI is a useful and widely used measure of profitability, it also has some limitations that should be considered when using it. Some of the limitations are:

#### ROI does not account for the time value of money.

ROI does not consider the timing or duration of the investment, which can affect its true value. For example, an investment that returns $10,000 after one year has a higher value than an investment that returns the same amount after five years, because the money can be reinvested or used for other purposes sooner.

#### ROI does not account for risk.

ROI does not reflect the uncertainty or variability of the investment's returns. For example, an investment that has a high ROI but also a high chance of losing money may not be preferable to an investment that has a lower ROI but also a lower risk of loss.

#### ROI can be manipulated or distorted by using different accounting methods or assumptions.

For example, different methods of depreciation or amortization can affect the net income or cost of an investment, which can change its ROI. Similarly, different assumptions about inflation, taxes, or opportunity costs can affect the calculation of ROI.

#### ROI may not be comparable across different investments or projects.

Different investments or projects may have different scales, scopes, objectives, or time frames, which can make it difficult to compare their ROIs. For example, a large-scale project that requires a high initial investment but generates a low annual return may have a lower ROI than a small-scale project that requires a low initial investment but generates a high annual return. However, the large-scale project may have other benefits or advantages that are not captured by the ROI metric.

### Conclusion

ROI is a simple and popular metric that measures the profitability of an investment by comparing its net return to its cost. It can be used to evaluate the performance of stock shares, business projects, marketing campaigns, or any other type of investment.Â

However, ROI also has some limitations that should be considered when using it, such as not accounting for the time value of money, risk, accounting methods, or comparability issues. Therefore, ROI should be used with caution and supplemented with other metrics or analysis tools when making investment decisions.

### References

- Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/10/guide-to-calculating-roi.asp
- Jurnal: https://www.jurnal.id/id/blog/2017-definisi-dan-cara-menghitung-roi-dengan-benar/
- Corporate Finance Institute: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/accounting/return-on-investment-roi-formula/

### FAQ

The formula for calculating ROI is: (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 100%

Yes, ROI can be negative. A negative ROI implies that the costs associated with the investment exceeded the gains, indicating a loss on the investment.

Generally, a higher ROI indicates a more profitable investment. However, itâ€™s important to consider other factors such as risk, investment duration, and the overall investment portfolio.

While ROI measures the return on an investment relative to the cost of the investment, ROE measures a corporationâ€™s profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested.

Yes, ROI can be used to evaluate both financial investments (like stocks and bonds) and non-financial investments (like projects, strategies, or marketing campaigns).Â

However, calculating ROI for non-financial investments can be more complex and subjective.